Keller-Heartt Blog: November 2013
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Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology (SCR) for Construction Equipment Advancing Rapidly

Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology (SCR) for Tier-4 compliant diesel engines in construction machinery continues to grow. Its time surely has arrived with equipment manufacturers incorporating it into their products.
Case Construction Equipment
Simply stated, SCR reduces the formation of particulate matter in the combustion chamber by using diesel exhaust fluid (DEF), a liquid reduction agent, to treat exhaust gases. This helps eliminate pollutants and increase engine efficiency. According to EPA, more than 738,000 tons of nitrogen oxides and 129,000 tons of particulate matter will be eliminated by 2030 through Tier-4 compliant engines making SCR a long-term advantage for manufacturers and end-users mandated to reduce pollutants. Frank Raczon, senior editor of Construction Equipment magazine and a writer for the publication's "Big Iron" blog, discussed the future of the technology in equipment. “Some construction OEMs are already putting SCR engines in equipment for Tier 4-Interim and in advance of Tier 4-Final, which hits the 174-hp band next year, and the 75-174-hp band in 2015,” Raczon said. Case Construction Equipment is a prime example with CAT, Deere, Volvo, JCB and others having introduced SCR to their lines. “Case’s larger wheel loaders, new large dozers, and larger excavators are already using SCR with diesel exhaust fluid. Other OEMs and engine makers have announced they will use SCR technology either exclusively or as a part of their Tier 4-Final solutions,” according to Raczon. “You will really see it come into play in 2014-2015, particularly in the larger-horsepower units.”
Case Construction Equipment
Brad Stemper, solutions marketing manager for Case, is a noted authority on SCR. In an article on, Stemper wrote, “Tier-4 mandates are a hot topic of conversation everywhere, from equipment dealer halls to quarries and loading yards.” A legitimate concern of most maintenance shop supervisors is the effect of SCR on maintenance costs, fuel usage and types of engine oil. In Equipment Manager, the Association of Equipment Managers (AEMP) publication, Stemper said, “Maintenance for SCR machines is easier than most fleet managers could ever have anticipated.” Furthermore, Stemper states, “Equipment managers will notice little change in the cost or complexity of maintaining SCR-equipped machines;” adding “machines will continue using standard oils without any concern for switching to low-ash oils or other more expensive formulations. Fuel usage is not an issue because SCR engines do not require any special fuel.” On SCR’s future, Stemper said, “Preconceptions about SCR and the hassles of adding DEF will fade away as regeneration becomes a thing of the past, as fuel efficiency improves and as wheel loaders perform with strength and without hesitation.”
Case Construction Equipment
Potential barriers to increasing SCR-equipped machines include the continued lag in construction activity inhibiting sales of new equipment to replace existing fleets, and a traditionally slow-to-adopt end-user market. Evidence shows that the technology will not add significantly to routine costs. Mike Porcaro served as publisher of Construction Equipment, Better Roads, and Aggregates Manager magazines. He covers advances in the construction industry.

Engine Lubrication to Impact Economy

The emissions regulations that have progressed over the last 14 years have caused great heartache for all involved. Not least of the stakeholders is the lubricants industry that has to design lubes that can stand the changes wrought in truck diesel engines. Since 1998 the lube industry had to research, design and fast introduce CH-4, CI-4 and CI-4+ and, now, the current CJ-4. This last was introduced to handle the rigorous 2007 combination of exhaust-gas recirculation and strict particulate matter controls.

Fortunately, the major change to deal with the significant 2007 step has taken engine manufacturers through EPA2010 without the need for further lubricant tweaking. But we’re likely not done. There’s a possibility there’s more to come and again in response to a mandate by the EPA. This time it incorporates a push to lower greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide. But you don’t get less CO2 unless you burn less fuel. So in reality, it’s less a mandate for emissions than for fuel economy improvement.

So there’s going to be a category change. Right now, there’s a committee of the American Petroleum Institute looking at just what this Proposed Category 11 will need for the engine manufacturers to meet the greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy regulations that start to bite in 2014 and continue with increasing severity to 2018. The Engine Manufacturers’ Association is looking for this to be addressed in a category change in 2016. Originally the target date was January but in the most recent meeting, held October 2 this year, EMA asked if the date could be pushed back until April as some testing protocols had not been fully agreed in the taskforces.


One area to be addressed is that the lube oil is going to have to pump more easily and it’s likely the new Category will have to include viscosities such as 10W-30 and even 5W-30 in addition to the industry standard 15W-40 of today, said Dan Arcy, Chairman of API’s New Category Development Team and Shell’s Global OEM Technical Manager.

Arcy said that concerns about lower viscosities have dictated the Team’s proposal to look at a test for adhesive wear for the first time. “Previously we have looked at abrasive wear, as when soot particles get between sliding surfaces. But we want to make sure that, in the lighter viscosities, we don’t get metal-to-metal adhesion,” he said. This is where microscopic high spots can break through the oil film and microweld to each other.

“A couple of other changes have been proposed to PC11. New tests for oxygenation stability, for aeration to replace one that has been obsoleted, and an improved method for looking at shear stability,” Arcy said. “There was a proposal to incorporate a test for biodiesel but that is off the table for now, though it is still being watched.”

“Those are the performance benefits in addition to the incorporation of higher and lower viscosities to account for fuel economy,” Arcy concluded.

Viscosity change echoes the EPA’s Smartway recommendation, which talks of gains from a switch to a “low viscosity” oil of 0.5% in the summer and 2% in the winter.

Chevron’s Gary Parsons cautions that you have to be very circumspect when looking at the testing and results. In his company’s rigorous testing, presented at a number of recent lubricants conferences, his paper says that the reliable gains are in the order of 1% to 1.5% for a switch to 10W-30 and another 0.5% in going to a 5W-30.

So, economy is certainly a major factor being considered, but there are other technical reasons for the new oil category for diesels currently scheduled for the spring of 2016.

Steve Sturgess is a columnist for Diesel Progress and contributor to several trucking and transportation publications including NZ Truck & Driver and Diesel Magazine.

STP Gas Treatment for Car Engines

Automobile engine repair is rarely cheap, but proper maintenance can be cheap and pay for itself many times over. 

STP gas treatment is designed to keep engines running smoothly and dependably.  With key ingredients consisting of jet fuel and powerful engine-cleaning detergents to keep gum, carbon buildup, and varnish buildup at bay, STP gas treatment for cars is the best gas treatment money can

STP gas treatment works much in the same way as fuel injection system cleaner, and it’s easy to use.  Simply pour the gas treatment in the tank and forget about it.  Its cleaning agents will increase engine performance, remove water from the fuel line, and clean fuel intake systems, resulting in higher MPG.   

About the Author: Keller-Heartt is committed to offering its customers the greatest lubrication, auto maintenance, and cleaning products available at the least expensive prices possible.  View their selection at

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Reasons to Use Fuel Injection Cleaner

best fuel injection cleanerVehicle maintenance can be somewhat costly, but the costs of preventative maintenance usually pale in comparison to those of repairs.  There are reasons that auto manufacturers include maintenance schedules for owners, and while it’s easy to take the viewpoint that “they just do that to make more money off of you”, the truth is that maintenance is essential if you intend to get the most out of your vehicle for the least amount of money.

While tire rotations, oil changes, wiper replacements, and brake pad changes are the more obvious
maintenance procedures that people are most familiar with, there are some lesser known procedures that can make a huge difference in vehicle performance, dependability, and durability. 

Fuel injectors are a part of modern vehicles that usually go unnoticed – unless they aren’t working properly.  Gradually replacing the carburetor since the 80’s, the fuel injector’s purpose is to inject fuel into the engine, where it is subsequently combusted, producing the energy that powers the drivetrain, thus turning the wheels and moving the automobile.  The great thing about fuel injection systems is that unlike older vehicles which rely on carburetors, a vehicle with a fuel injection system will more easily start in extreme weather conditions, particularly colder conditions. 

However, like any other part of a vehicle, the fuel injection system is prone to problems if it is not properly maintained.  Over time, a fuel injector can acquire a hefty buildup of fuel varnish deposits, resulting in a reduced amount of fuel being injected into the combustion engine.  This reduction can cause problems such as engine misfires, hesitations, stalls, lower MPG, rough idles, and tough starts.

Fuel injectors are not cheap to replace and can cost hundreds of dollars before even factoring in the labor costs.  Therefore, most prudent way to keep a fuel injection system clean is with preventative maintenance. 

A good fuel injection cleaner is a great way to perform this preventative maintenance, and is fortunately easy to administer.  As an additive, one simply needs to add a fuel injection system cleaner to the gas tank ever so often to help keep the injectors from being clogged by carbon and fuel varnish buildup.  The best fuel injection cleaner will most likely be made of jet fuel as it is a great carrier of the cleaning agents needed to keep injectors clean.  STP fuel injection cleaner is a great example, is relatively cheap, and can save an automobile owner hundreds or even thousands of dollars in headaches if made a staple in the ongoing maintenance process.  The benefit of paying a few dollars upfront in order to negate the need to pay hundreds later down the road cannot be overstated, so it’s definitely a worthy investment that is literally worth far more than its weight in gold.

About the Author:  Keller-Heartt is a major supplier of lubrication products, automobile maintenance chemicals, and cleaning agents designed to keep America’s personal and fleet vehicles in the best shape possible.  Their product listing can be viewed at

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